WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF POND WITH THE USE OF COMPOST MADE FROM TEAK LEAVES IN RELATION TO MANAGEMENT OF POND THAT HAVE A CONCEPTION ENVIRONMENTAL*
Budi Kurniawan and Kusnandar**
During the study , the type of plankton Chlorophyta genera consisting of Clamydomonas sp , Nannochloropsis sp , Cyclotella hidonica and Spirostomum ambiguum ; Cyanophyta genera consisting of Oscillatoria rubescens ; genera of Bacillariophyta consists of Nitzchia palea, Chaetoceros sp , Naviculla , Thallasiosira sp, and Skeletonema ; genera Dinoflagellata consist of Gymnodinium mikimotoi, Gymnodinium sangenum, and Gyrodinium coerelum ; genera other Plankton consists of Cryptomonas sp and Euglena, whereas Protozoan genera consisting of Ciliapora, Strombidinopsis gyrans, Euplotes Charon and Vorticella microstoma. For zooplankton genera consisting of Brachionus urceus. Diversity index (H ') during the study ranged from 2.367 to 2.760 greater than 2 with the quality of the media during the study classified as having mild pollution because diversity index is less than 2.0 . Uniformity index values ranged from 0.174 to 0.270 approaches a value of 0, it indicates that the species of phytoplankton are not same evenly distributed and there is a tendency of a species to dominate a community because of the uniformity index values approaching 0 (zero). Compost with teak leaves raw materials will increase the level of fertility media during the study.
Saprobitas level categorized in saprobitas: oligosaprobik (not contaminated) until the β Mesosaprobik (pollution moderate to mild) with an indication of fertility can be utilized for farms clams, oysters, snapper, milkfish and seaweed. The different types of compost has significant influence (P <0.01) to the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness index, whereas differences compost doses had no effect to the abundance of plankton, the index SI and TSI, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness Index. The content of nitrogen and phosphate in teak leaf compost is higher than other types of compost.
Keywords: Water Quality Improvement, Teak Leaves Compost, Environmental
*) Presented in the Conference on Blue Economi Concept in Marine and Fisheries Industry
**) Lecturer of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Pancasakti University, Tegal – Central Java Indonesia.INTRODUCTION
Coastal areas in Tegal has suffered environmental degradation due to the development of urban areas, environmental pollution coming from upstream as a result of agricultural activities and activities of the coastal area of the port and the loading and unloading of ships, development of the city which cause environmental pollution, land conversion of cultivation into residential, duck's farms in the pond area, and the construction of waste disposal area of the city's around the pond. This is effect on cultivation, such as crop failure (sudden death cultivant), growth klekap as natural feed. To overcome these constraints need to be done the pond water improvement naturally, such as fertilization using compost made from teak leaves.
According to Soetomo ( 2002) , pond fertilization is an important factor for achieving success aquaculture. This is because the carrying capacity of the aquaculture land is limited in maintaining fertility, which resulted in the abundance of natural food for tiger shrimp, especially in the form of klekap and moss. Declining soil fertility caused by not paying attention to the management of soil fertility preservation. As a result, soil fertility is very limited. Therefore, fertilization is an attempt to improve the ability of the soil in order to achieve maximum yields. With fertilization, the soil will be fertile and will allow increasing the natural food preparation useful for the organism cultured.
Function is compost improves soil structure, soil texture, aeration and provides food for microorganisms that can keep the soil healthy and balanced (Isroi, 2008). Chosen because teak leaves as compost in the soil become fertile environment where the growth, leaf teak has a high fiber, so as to improve the soil pores. Thus, the use of compost is expected to improve the condition of ponds and can grow natural food "klelap" in the pond, so it can be an alternative material to repair the carrying capacity of the pond.
Compost manufacturers are also used in this study as a comparison. Compost manufacturer used is the type of compost that is commonly used by fish farmers. In addition, the compost is tested to have a dose of between 200 grams and 300 grams each media research, so it will obtain the right combination treatment in determining the type and dose of compost is given, in order to repair the pond fertility and productivity.OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study are to:
1. Analyze the effectiveness of the provision of teak leaf compost to improve the quality of critical fishponds.
2. Analyzing differences in the dose of compost in improving the quality of ponds land critical
3. Improving the living standard of the farmers (increase ponds productivity by using compost made from teak wood leafOUTCOMES / TARGET EXPECTED
Outcomes or targets of the implementation of this study are:
1. The achievement of alternatives for environmentally sound ponds management to the use of compost made from teak leaves
2. The achievement of an increase in the level of fertility of pond water after using compost made from teak leaves.
3. Increased productivity of the pond after using compost made from teak wood leaf.MATERIALS OF THE RESEARCH
The material used in the study consisted of:
1. Media of Test
Media of test used in this study are soil and water of pond in the Village of Muarareja, Tegal. Land required is 5 kg / bucket and water as much as 5.12 liters per bucket.
2. Container of Test
The container used was a plastic bucket 18 pieces forms a circle. Bucket size is 75 cm diameter, and 30 cm high. To supply oxygen to the media, aeration performed on each test container.
Compost used in this study is the organic fertilizer from teak leaves and compost fertilizer manufactured as a comparison. The reason is compost has preservative power to improve the land condition of critical or arid.
4. Dose of Compost
Dose of teak leaf fertilizer and compost manufactured given is 200 and 300 grams per bucket.METHODS
The method used in the study is the experimental. Treatment in the study was the type of compost (raw material teak leaves and compost manufacturers / commercial). The dose of compost is 200 grams / container and 300 grams / container.
Experimental models used are factorial experiment, with two factors: Factor A (feed type) Factor B (Dose Giving compost) to three (3) replications. The treatments were as follows:
1. Factor A(Type of feed)
A1 = Compost with teak leaf material
A2 = manufactured compost (commercial)
A3 = Mixture of Both
2. Factor B (Dose Giving Compost)
B1 = Compost dose of 200 grams per tub
B2 = compost dose of 300 grams per tub
Data collected in the study include: biological parameters: plankton; physical parameters of water: temperature and water color, and water chemistry parameters: salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved CO2, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate.DATA ANALYSIS
At first, it is tested the normality of the data (Lilliefors test), and then a test of homogeneity (Bartlett test) and additifitas test (Tukey test) (Sudjana, 1992). If the data are normal, homogeneous and additive, so it is performed analysis of variance with factorial pattern. Analysis of variance is used to determine the treatment effect on fertility waters before and after composting. Duncan test is done to determine the best treatment effect. Sudjana (1994) stated that the test formulation Duncan multiple areas as follows:
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Plankton abundance during the study is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Plankton abundance during the study
Based on the table above shows that the type of plankton during the study of the genera of Chlorophyta consists of Clamydomonas sp, Nannochloropsis sp, Cyclotella hidonica and Spirostomum ambiguum; Cyanophyta genera consisting of Oscillatoria rubescens; genera of Bacillariophyta consists of Nitzchia palea, Chaetoceros sp, Naviculla, Thallasiosira sp, and Skeletonema; genera of Dinoflagellates consist of Gymnodinium mikimotoi, Gymnodinium sangenum, and Gyrodinium coerelum; genara plankton others (other types of plankton) consists of Cryptomonas sp and Euglena, whereas genera of Protozoa consist of Ciliapora, Strombidinopsis gyrans, Euplotes charon and Vorticella microstoma. For genera of zooplankton consist of Brachionus urceus. Based on Table 1 shows that the abundance of the type of compost made from teak leaves have a higher abundance of the types of compost manufacturers. Plankton Index
Diversity index (H '), uniformity index (e) and Evenness Index (d) of plankton during the study is presented in Appendix 2. The summary index of diversity (H '), uniformity index (e) and Evenness Index (D) contained plankton in ponds Tegal presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Diversity index (H '), uniformity index (e) and Evenness Index (d) of plankton during the study
Table 2 shows that the diversity index (H ') ranged from 2.367 to 2.760 (greater than 2). So according to Lee et al (1978), the quality of the media during the study pertained to the light pollution (diversity index less than 2.0). Uniformity index values ranged from 0.174 to 0.270 ( close to the value 0 ), it indicates that the species of phytoplankton are not same evenly distributed and there is a tendency of a species to dominate a community because of the uniformity index values approaching 0 (zero) . According to Pielou (1975), the smaller the uniformity index (close to zero), the spread of individuals of each species are not the same and there is a tendency of a species to dominate a community. Type of plankton that dominated during the study for the Chlorophyta is kind Clamydomonas sp and Nannochloropsis sp, while for the class of Cyanophyta is kind of Oscillatoria rubescens and for class of Bacillariophyta is kind Nitzchia palea . Plankton Euglena viridis , Nitzchia palea , and Oscillatoria rubescens is a type of plankton found in polluted waters and are always found at each sampling station .
Evenness index values during the study ranged from 0.730 to 0.826 (approaching one). This suggests that the phytoplankton species evenly spread in media research (samples of pond waters). So that means there are organisms that dominate and can be used as indicators of pollution or damage to the waters environment Diversity index of plankton in the Village Stage, Mintaragen, Tegalsari and Muarareja shows values smaller than 2.0. It shows the entire pond waters lightly polluted. The low of plankton diversity index is closely connected with the declining quality of the pond water due to the development of Tegal as an industrial area and the need for land for housing and domestic sewage.The Level of Saprobic
The results of the analysis indicate that the Saprobic Index values (SI) and Tropics Saprobic Index (TSI) during the study with the treatment of teak leaf compost, manure, and a mixture of both of them is presented in Appendix 3. Recapitulation Saprobic Index (SI) and Tropisc Saprobic Index (TSI) during the study is presented in Table 3.
Table 3. The Value of Saprobic Index (SI) and Tropics Saprobic Index (TSI) during the study with teak leaf composting treatment, manure, and a mixture of both of them
The results showed that the use of compost with teak leaf material will increase the level of fertility media during the study. Saprobic levels categorized in oligosaprobic (not contaminated) until the β Mesosaprobic (pollution moderate to mild) with an indication of fertility can be utilized for culture: clams, oysters, snapper, milkfish and seaweed.
According Ferianita et al (2005) the strongest influence on the level conditions saprobitas in a waters is the proximity to population centers and sedimentation. It added that the increase in saprobic level or decrease in the saprobic index is due to the input of industrial waste and domestic waste. Further is stated that the saprobic levels in waters that shows the level of light pollution caused by organic and inorganic pollutants. Meanwhile, according to Gunalan (1993), environmental pollution of waters by organic material (which generally comes from domestic and industrial waste), in recent years this has always increased. In addition to coming from industrial and domestic waste, pollution also comes from the rest of the artificial feed (pellets) and cultured animals.
The existence of plankton Euglena, Nitzchia palea, and Oscillatoria rubescens during the study indicate that the environment of ponds in Tegal has been polluted. Nitzschia sp, sp Chaetoceros, Rhizosolenia sp, sp Coelostrum, including the α Mesosaprobik groups and can be used as an indicator that the water was heavily polluted. Besides, there is a type of plankton Gymnodinium sp (Dinoflagellata class) that are toksit on aquatic biota, but in the saprobic classification of organisms, including in other organisms (group E)Physical-chemical parameters of water
Based on the physic-chemical parameters of water obtained that there has been an increase in the control with good compost composting treat teak leaves, manure, and a mixture of both. Parameters of water quality during the study are presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Physical parameters of water chemistry during the study
Based on data analysis using SPSS to the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, Uniformity index, and Evenness index is obtained that:
Based on the analysis of variance shows that the differences in the type of compost that is given to the ponds was highly significant (P <0.01) on the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness Index, while the difference in the compost dose had no effect on the abundance plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness Index.Soil and Compost Quality
Parameters related to the content of Nitrite, Nitrate. Phosphate, Ammonia in the soil of each treatment is presented in the following table.
Table 5 Content of: Nitrite, Nitrate. Phosphate, Ammonia in soil for each treatment
Based on the soil observation related to content of Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphate, Ammonia, it appears that the use of compost with teak leaf material was able to reduce the content of Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphate, Ammonia on soil of ponds. The content of nitrogen and phosphate in compost for each treatment is presented in Table 6.
Table 6. Nitrogen and phosphate content of the compost for each treatment
Table 6 shows that the content of nitrogen and phosphate to compost leaves teak is higher than other compostDiscussion
Based on the analysis of variance shows that the differences in the type of compost has highly significant effect (P <0.01) against the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, the index Uniformity index, and Evenness index, whereas differences doses of compost had no effect on the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, the index Uniformity index, and Evenness Index.
The purpose of fertilization is to grow natural food for milkfish ( klekap / labs ) , moss and phytoplankton and maintain water clarity . If the klekap is expected to grow, it is necessary manure at a dose of 350 kg / ha , and if the moss , it is needed NPK fertilizer at a dose of 20 grams per m3 of water .For practical guidance , provision of fertilizer do 2 weeks at a dose of 2 kg of urea and 15 kg of TSP per ha pond . To grow diatomaceous and phytoplankton flagellates, given fertilizer with a ratio of N and P accordance with the provisions. Diatomaceous phytoplankton preferred by milkfish as a natural food ingredient.
The existence of plankton greatly affect life in a body of water, this is because plankton act as food for organisms. Plankton (particularly of the type of phytoplankton) are the primary producers being able to photosynthesize so its presence is very important including the water in the pond (Nybakken, 1992). Sachlan (1982) stated that the most important phytoplankton in the water is a class Chrysophyceae because it can be eaten by the fish / shrimp. This is consistent with the results of the study, where phytoplankton from genera Nitzachia polca and Sinedra asus (which is a class Chrysophyceae) has the most abundance compared with other genera. Based on the analysis, the content of nitrogen and phosphate with teak leaf material is higher than the other compost. Thereby, fertilization be able to supply nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate in the water which in turn will foster different types of algal from class Chrysophyceae.
According to Gusmardi (2003), the addition of the nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers in the pond will grow many types of algae from class Chrysophyceae. Shrimp growth will be directly proportional to the increase in the population of algae in the pond. The result of the study shows that the plankton abundance was highest in treatment A1B1 (teak leaf compost at a dose of 200 grams) and A1B2 (teak leaf compost at a dose of 300 grams). According to Suyanto (1985), the shrimp farming in ponds, the influence of fertilizer does not occur directly. That is , the first stage is the emergence of plankton , the second phase of plankton eaten by many kinds of organisms , the third stage is the organisms eaten by shrimp.
Chlorophyta has the highest abundance values for each test either at the beginning or end of the study. This is in accordance with the opinion Sachlan (1982) that phytoplankton played an important role in the fresh waters are green algae. It is said also, if the ponds fertilized with inorganic fertilizer or manure, most likely phytoplankton from the green alga which is the primary producer and then be eaten directly by zooplankton or fish-newly hatched fish. Zooplanktons were found at the beginning and end of the observation is ciliate classes. According Sachlan (1982), that the ciliate does not constitute pure freshwater zooplankton, but most live among peryphyton or at the base as a benthos, where there are many decaying detritus. In traditionally managed farms (simpler), milk fish only eat different types of natural food in the pond that is klekap (a mixture of various types of moss), plankton and detritus (ingredients and impurities in the water that decomposed at the bottom of the pond).
The content of nitrogen and phosphate in teak leaf compost is higher than other types of compost. According to Gusmardi (2003), the method to grow plankton in ponds is different with to grow the other natural food (klekap, moss). The depth of water, the amount and composition of fertilizer to be used is a requirement that must be met in order to achieve success in the growing of natural food (plankton). Plankton need water with sufficient depth, while the fertilizer used should be a combination of fertilizer nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). One of the fertilizers used in fertilizing the pond is organic fertilizer.
Phosphorous which are bound in the feed material or rock is the not-dissolved phosphorus and does not affect the performance of the water, but the P-bound phosphorus cycle can be dissolved by the solvent bacterial phosphate. The solvent bacteria phosphate naturally present in nature, especially in areas that have a high content of phosphate rock. The dissolved phosphate (PO4) is nutrients trigger the development of plankton, because plankton is very sensitive to the levels of phosphate in the water. The addition of 1 unit of phosphate will be able to raise the plankton population of 100 units. So that is too high phosphate content in water can lead to unruly plankton and plankton bloom occurs.
Even at content of phosphate greater than 0.5 ppm, it very vulnerable to attack BGA type of plankton that can produce geosmin toxins that can be deadly the shrimp.
Land is a natural resource which contains a lot of organic and inorganic materials and is able to support plant growth. As agricultural production factors, land and water containing nutrients, need to be added for the replacement of consumable substance. Soil erosion can occur due to high rainfall which can affect the physical, chemical and biological soil. Erosion should be controlled by improving soil devastated by covering its surface. Soil is a reservoir of various chemicals.
Soil pollution can also occur due to the disposal of solid waste that cannot be destroyed as well as plastic and liquid waste through the water. Water containing contaminants (pollutants) will alter the chemical composition of the soil so that it contains the remains of living in or on the soil surface.
Soil pollution is related to air pollution and water pollution, then the source of air pollutants and sources of water pollution, so source of air and water pollutant is also source of soil pollutant. For example, carbon oxide gases, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides into the air pollutants that dissolve in rain water and fell to the ground can cause acid rain causing pollution of soil. Water on the surface of the soil containing pollutant material (exp. radioactive substances , heavy metals from industrial waste, household waste, hospital waste, the remnants of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural areas, waste detergent), eventually also can contaminate the soil.Conclusion
Based on the results of the study can be summarized as follows:
1. Plankton types found during the study were : ( a) Chlorophyta genera consisting of Clamydomonas sp, Nannochloropsis sp, Cyclotella hidonica and Spirostomum ambiguum ; ( b ) genera of Cyanophyta (species Oscillatoria rubescens); ( c ) genera of Bacillariophyta, consisting of Nitzchia palea , Chaetoceros sp , Naviculla , Thallasiosira sp, and Skeletonema ; ( d ) genera of Dinoflagellate, consisting of Gymnodinium mikimotoi, Gymnodinium sangenum, and Gyrodinium coerelum; ( e ) genera of plankton others ( other types of plankton ), consisting of Cryptomonas sp and Euglena; ( f ) genera of Protozoa consist of Ciliapora, Strombidinopsis gyrans, Euplotes charon and Vorticella microstoma, and (g) the zooplankton genera (species Brachionus urceus).
2. Diversity index (H ') during the study ranged from 2.367 to 2.760 (greater than 2) with the quality of media including light pollution (because it has a diversity index of less than 2.0). Uniformity index values ranged from 0.174 to 0.270 (close to the value 0), it indicates that the existence of phytoplankton are not same evenly distributed and there is a tendency of a species to dominate a community (uniformity index approaching 0).
3. Compost with teak leaf material can increase the fertility of media during the study. Saprobic level categorized in: oligosaprobic (not contaminated) until the β Mesosaprobic (pollution moderate to mild) with an indication of fertility can be utilized for culture of clams, oysters, snapper, milkfish and seaweed.
4. The different types of compost was highly significant (P <0.01) against the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness Index. While differences of compost doses had no effect on the abundance of plankton, SI and TSI index, diversity index, uniformity index, and Evenness Index
5. The content of nitrogen and phosphate in compost with teak leaf material is higher than other types of the other compost.Suggestion
Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that the use of compost with teak leaf material in pond management is strongly advised to repair the environment. This is consistent with the results of the study.REFERENCES
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